Prior to the implementation of the free trade agreement, the Peruvian government withdrew existing environmental protection measures to implement the provisions of the free trade agreement regarding the rights of foreign investors to access forestry, mines and other natural resources. These included access to sensitive Amazonian areas over which indigenous communities had control of the FTA, in accordance with Peruvian law.  Protests by indigenous Amazonian communities against the implementation of the free trade agreement and associated new foreign investors using indigenous land rights have been fatal. By contrast, when the opposition recovered, a confrontation had already taken place in June 2009 near the town of Bagua, in the northern Amazon province, which, according to official figures, killed 34 people.  In the face of these widespread riots, the Peruvian Congress repealed two additional decrees that redefined forests to allow for more logging and mining.  On 18 November 2003, the USTR informed the US Congress of the government`s intention to begin free trade negotiations with Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, all of which are beneficiaries of the Air Preferences Act (ATPA). On November 18, 2003, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Zoellick informed Congress of the Bush administration`s intention to begin negotiations for a free trade agreement with countries participating in the Andean Trade Act.  However, negotiations began without Bolivia in May 2004, with each of the three remaining Andean countries deciding to pursue bilateral agreements with the United States. After 13 rounds of negotiations, Peru and the United States reached an agreement on 7 December 2005. Alfredo Ferrero, Peru`s Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism, and U.S. Trade Representative Rob Portman signed the agreement on April 12, 2006 in Washington, D.C. in the presence of Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo.
(Note: This html version of the chords was created by SICE. The free trade agreement builds on the provisions of the Andean Tariff Preferences Act of 1991, which allowed Peruvian companies to export most of the goods to the United States duty-free. The free trade agreement will provide similar treatment to the majority of U.S. products arriving in Peru, allowing 80% of U.S. consumer and industrial products to enter Peru duty-free as soon as it comes into force; the remaining rates maturing over a 10-year period. More than two-thirds of current U.S. agricultural exports to Peru will also be immediately exempt from tariffs. Despite these changes, the 18% VAT rate remains valid for almost all commercial transactions. The free trade agreement is also the first U.S.
trade agreement that reflects the improved labour and environmental standards set out in the agreement reached between the two governments in May 2007. Under the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA), U.S. exports of consumer goods and industrial goods to Peru are no longer subject to tariffs. For agricultural products, tariffs on nearly 90% of U.S. exports have been eliminated and the remaining tariffs will be eliminated by 2026. The TPA also provides favorable access to U.S. service providers, as well as guarantees for the protection of U.S. investors and copyrights, trademarks and patents registered in Peru.