InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. The goal of the agreement is to reduce global warming described in Article 2, “improving the implementation” of the UNFCCC In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human intervention in the planet`s climate systems in the long term. The pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions from individual countries and does not contain enforcement mechanisms, but establishes a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emissions targets. Participating countries meet annually at a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to combat climate change. The resulting Kyoto Protocol was adopted at COP 3 in 1997.
To a large extent, at the request of the United States, the agreement included a series of “flexible” or market-based mechanisms that allowed industrialized countries to use different forms of emissions trading to achieve their objectives at a lower cost. However, President Clinton never submitted the minutes to the Senate and shortly after his election, President George W. Bush announced that the United States would not ratify it. When it became clear that the Kyoto Protocol had been undermined, the parties to the UNFCCC sought to put in place an alternative framework that would allow all countries, both development and development, to act more vigorously. The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. In June 2017, President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement.
However, the withdrawal cannot be officially launched until 4 November 2019 and would not take effect until a year later. Meanwhile, the Trump administration has hinted that it will continue to negotiate the Paris rules and remain in the agreement under revised terms. How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker  and the climate clock). Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to maintain the increase in emissions